"To revolt today, means to revolt against war" [Albert Camus]

 

Blog ini berisi working paper, publikasi penelitian, resume berikut review eksemplar terkait studi ilmu-ilmu sosial & humaniora, khususnya disiplin sosiologi, yang dilakukan oleh Wahyu Budi Nugroho [S.Sos., M.A]. Menjadi harapan tersendiri kiranya, agar khalayak yang memiliki minat terhadap studi ilmu-ilmu sosial & humaniora dapat memanfaatkan berbagai hasil kajian dalam blog ini dengan baik, bijak, dan bertanggung jawab.


Sabtu, 12 Maret 2011

DEMOCRACY VS KHILAFAH

DEMOCRACY VS KHILAFAH
REVIEWING CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY ERA
AND THE MAPPING OF INDONESIA AS THE MICRO TYPE OF CONCERNED CONFLICT
By: Wahyu Budi Nugroho, S.Sos



Introduction
            Prof. Dr. Sutan Takdir Alisyahbana ever said that world filled by the history of rise and set of great civilizations. According him, the first world civilization is Ancient India, the fall of Ancient India civilization followed by the rise of Ancient Egypt, thereafter Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, after that Christian, then Islam, and Islamic civilization which already collapse replaced by West or Capitalism which is still exist until now.[1]
            Obey several definitions, “civilization” may simply define as the highest culture which exist in it era.[2] For example, world famous economist named Paul W. Elkan argued that West (Capitalist) hold 90% capacity of technology and capital in the world, or in other words, 20% of industrialize population of world total population hold 90% technology and capital in the world.[3] Realize or not, Elkan’s analysis show that present world hold by West or Capitalist civilization.
            Yet, till now there’s no exact explanation concerned capitalist—as a thought or practice—appear for the first time. Some argued that capitalism already exist in agriculture era, Weber made the Protestant Ethics of John Calvin as the point of capitalism born,[4] in other side, Marx on The History of Matrealism said that “the history growth and expropiation process era” in the fifteen century as the sign of capitalism born, it is indicate by the transform of mode production, from subsistence to “buying and selling”.[5] There’re also several thought that claim if Church Reformation by Martin Luther as the moment of capitalism rise consider the whole impact of reformation which covered social, politic and economic field.[6] There’re also opinion of capitalism rise caused renaissance in fifteen-eighteen century, or caused the book of Adam Smith, The Inquiry To The Nature and Causes of The Wealth of Nations which affirm the separation of society economic life from state.
            Out of frame above, an attracting issue of world today constellation is the publication of Francis Fukuyama’s exemplar entitled, The End of History and The Last Man in the early 90’s decade. On the book that many people called as the celebration of the communism collapse, Fukuyama affirm capitalism winning of several world ideologies such as monarchi, fascism and the last, communism.[7] Directly, his publication reaped a wide controversial respond, especially from intellectuals and it is still become a discourse in present day. Samuel Huntington on The Clash of Civilizations oppose against Fukuyama by saying that society who claim on the period of “End History” actually is a society who will face their collapse.[8] Agree to Huntington, Derrida on Specter of Marx said that the other ideologies outside capitalism are never dies, they only hide and sleep.[9] And, all of concerned arguments already affirm by famous American antropologist, Arnold Toynbee who said that conflict between West and Soviet-Communism is only an interlude, after that West will face a huger war with Islam, it is the return of crusade sentiment.[10]
            A little explanation above apparently make writer furthermore attract to choose the clash of civilizations theme as a writing project in this paper. In this writing, writer not only try to explain the phenomenon of civilizations clash in global level, but also in Indonesia which is placed as the micro type field of civilizations clash.
   
Comparison of Ideology
            The term of “ideology” appear for the first time from France nobleman named Antoine De Stutt De Tracy, according him ideology is a science of human thoughts which may bring to goodness.[11] In it history plot, ideology found itself in ameliorative and pejorative form, it is known good in Tracy era, then bad in Napoleon era, return as a goodness in European fascism era, and return as an “evil” according Frankfurt Schule thinkers, and henceforth.[12] The long history plot of ideology undirectly impact to the variant definitions of itself, for example ideology then may define as an organize ideas which held multidimension problem such as politic, economy and social, or it definition as a worldview.[13]
            Thus, if all above may define as ideology, therefore Islam may also define as an ideology consider the wide field of itself which covered social, politic also economic issues. Here the comparison scheme,[14]


CAPITALISM
ISLAM
Social System
Secular-Liberal
Syariah
Economic System
Laissez Faire
Syariah
Political System
Democracy
Khilafah
Epistemology
Du Contract Social, The Second Treatise on Government, The Wealth of Nations, etc. 
Koran and Hadith

Indonesia as The Micro Type of Global Clash Civilizations
            The phenomenon of bubble economic which occurred Eight Asian Magic include Indonesia in the last decade of 1990’s directly impact to the fall of Soeharto’s regime and brought reformation era factually may significantly transform social and political constellation of Indonesia. During three decades there’s no freedom of speech for those who oppose against government, present the chance to express argument, opinion and thought are fully guaranteed by reformation regime. One of them who has a chance to do it is Islamic fundamental group or Islamic radical movement in Indonesia. There’s no deny if Soeharto’s regime left a lot of grief note to the Islamic-ideologist group. Some of them shown in the tragedy of Cicendo (1981), Tanjung Priok (1984), Haurkoneng, Talangsari (1989) and Daerah Operasi Militer (DOM), Aceh.[15]
            Realize or not, reformation in Indonesia precisely brought to the era of “democracy euphoria”. It is shown by the rise of many Islamic fundamental group which banned in Soeharto’s regime long time ago. Most wanted man in Soeharto’s era, Abu Bakar Ba’asyir may return to Indonesia and established Islamic group called Majelis Mujahiddin Indonesia (MMI), also the rapid development of Front Pembela Islam (FPI) by Habieb Riziek, as well to the banned organization in Soeharto’s era, Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia/International (HTI). Furthermore, this explanation will describe concrete facts concerned Indonesia as a field or precisely “micro type” of civilizations clash in contemporary era.

The Refusing of Pancasila Ideology
            As Kholid Santosa said that discuss about the state ideology, Pancasila as same as discuss about the “unfinished history”.[16] Indonesia, differ from United States of America with Declaration of Independence, France with Liberty, Egality and Fraternity, also Kuba with Patri O’Muerte Venceremos which is all of the history of those country are finished, in the meaning there’s a national consensus concern thought or ideology which be holding as collective worldview to manage social, politic and economic life in the present and future time, Indonesia with pancasila differ from those countries.
            Factually, in this case so many refusing of Indonesian people concerned pancasila as state ideology, especially come from moslems intellectual. It is occurred for several reasons; first, the refusing of Indonesian people to secularism which is separating state from religious life. They assumed that human law can not be better than “God law”. Second, the historical awkwardness of arranging pancasila ideology  which only become the representation of nationalists group.[17]

The Enforcing of Khilafah Issue in Indonesia
            As same as an ideology, beside social and economic concepts, Islam also has political concept called “khilafah”. Differ from democracy, khilafah is a governmental system which based on internationalism, it is stress on the unity of world moslems.[18] Therefore, it is not surprise if radical moslems refuse the concept of nationalism or nation-state, they also assumed that nationalism has a high sensitively of conflict refer to chauvinism and fascism. In other side, radical moslems also said that the idea of nationalism was penetrate by Napoleon Bonaparte for the first time in Egypt,[19] so it is not the origin idea of Islam.
            In Indonesia, khilafah issue brought by some radical Islam organizations such as MMI, FPI and HTI. HTI (Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia/International) especially, already using systematic political Islam teaching method to get member throught a forum called halaqah which held twice a week. In the first meeting, they commonly use it to study HTI’s guidance book which wrote by Taqiyuddin an-Nabhanni. In the second meeting, they use it to discuss global and local actual events by HTI’s perspective.[20]    
            On August 12, 2007 HTI has succesfully held an international conference in Jakarta-Indonesia called, “Khilafah Islamiyyah International Conference” which attended by not less than a hundred thousand participants.[21] The impact of that conference enforce khilafah issue in Indonesia. It is shown by more intensity of Hizbut Tahrir’s figure appear in national media such as television, radio, newspaper and magazine.

The Spreading of Dictrict Syariah Constitution
            Nowadays, enthusiastic Indonesian people of syariah constitution increase rapidly. Present, several districts which using syariah constitution such as Bulukumba, Banten, Tangerang, Padang, Lombok and others. As written before, that phenomenon indicate the practice of Islamic value by moslems to use their own worldview. It is also may interprete as a hesitate of moslems using secularism system.
            The phenomenon above attract pro and contra discourse between center legislative. Fifty six of legislative members ask the banned of syariah constitution consider several reasons such as discrimination and concerned disintegration issue.[22] For Kholid Santosa, the spread of syariah constitution is a common phenomenon, it is caused by long time ago before Indonesia got their independence, the Indonesian territory filled by Islamic monarchi. So, it is not surprise if after got their independence major of Indonesian people want to put Islam as the worldview of their everyday life.[23]

Conclusion
            According to brief explanation above, we may conclude that contemporary global civilizations clash has significantly effect the constellation of social and political life in Indonesia. It is also supported by the Indonesian democracy euphoria in the last decade of 1990’s. In simply, it is become possible to put Indonesia as a micro type of global civlizations clash in contemporary era. All of concerned argued based on several facts: the refusing of Indonesian people to state ideology (pancasila), especially from moslem intellectuals; the enforcing of khilafah issue in Indonesia; and the spread of district syariah constitution in Indonesia. Realize or not, it is an indicator the occured civilizations clash in Indonesia.    


References

Primary Source
§  Interview with member of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, Taufik Hidayat, SE.i

Secondary Sources
§  Adian, Donny Gahral. 2006. Percik Pemikiran Kontemporer. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.
§  Ahmed, Shabir-Karim, Abid. 1997. Akar Nasionalisme Di Dunia Islam. Jatim: Al-Izzah.
§  Aminudin. 1999. Kekuatan Islam dan Pergulatan Kekuasaan di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. 
§  an-Nabhani, Taqiyuddin. 2006. Konsepsi Politik Hizbut Tahrir. Jakarta: HTI Press.
§  Azhar, Muhammad. 2001. Fiqh Peradaban. Yogyakarta: Ittaqa Press.
§  Clements, Kevin P. 1997. Teori-Teori Pembangunan Dari Kiri ke Kanan. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.
§  Fukuyama, Francis. 2004. The End of History and The Last Man. Yogyakarta: Qalam.
§  Hardiman, F. Budi. 2004. Filsafat Modern. Jakarta: Gramedia.
§  Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia. 2006. Selamatkan Indonesia Dengan Syariah. Jakarta: HTI Press.
§  Huntington, Samuel P. 2006. Benturan Antarperadaban. Yogyakarta: Qalam.
§  Husaini, Adian. 2005. Wajah Peradaban Barat. Jakarta: Gema Insani.
§  Marx, Karl. 2004. Kapital (Buku I). Jakarta: Hasta Mitra.
§  Nuswantoro. 2001. Daniel Bell: Matinya Ideologi. Magelang: Indonesiatera.
§  Partanto, Pius A. & Al Barry, M. Dahlan. 1994. Kamus Ilmiah Populer. Surabaya: Arkola.
§  Santosa, Kholid O. 2006. Jejak-Jejak Sang Pejuang Pemberontak. Bandung: Segaarsy.
§  Sim, Stuart. 2002. Derrida dan Akhir Sejarah. Yogyakarta: Jendela.
§  Soekanto, Soerjono. 1990. Pengantar Sosiologi.Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.
§  Sosronegoro, Herqutanto. 1984. Beberapa Ideologi dan Implementasinya dalam Kehidupan Kenegaraan. Yogyakarta: Liberty.
§  Weber, Max. 2006. Etika Protestan dan Spirit Kapitalisme. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.





Thank you very much…




[1] Muhammad Azhar, Fiqh Peradaban, Ittaqa Press, Yogyakarta, 2001, h. 12.
[2] Soerjono Soekanto, Pengantar Sosiologi, Rajawali Pers, Jakarta, 1990. h. 174.
[3] For further information: Kevin P. Clements, Teori-Teori Pembangunan Dari Kiri ke Kanan, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1997.
[4] Max Weber, Etika Protestan dan Spirit Kapitalisme, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 2006.  
[5] Karl Marx, Kapital (Buku I), Hasta Mitra, Jakarta, 2004, h. 800-821.
[6] F. Budi Hardiman, Filsafat Modern, Gramedia, Jakarta, 2004, h. 13.
[7] Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and The Last Man, Qalam, Yogyakarta, 2004, h. 1.
[8] Samuel P. Huntington, Benturan Antarperadaban, Qalam, Yogyakarta, 2006, h. 567-568.
[9] Stuart Sim, Derrida dan Akhir Sejarah, Jendela, Yogyakarta, 2002, h. vi.
[10] For further information: Adian Husaini, Wajah Peradaban Barat, Gema Insani, Jakarta, 2005.
[11] Nuswantoro, Daniel Bell: Matinya Ideologi, Indonesiatera, Magelang, 2001, h. 56-57.
[12] Donny Gahral Adian, Percik Pemikiran Kontemporer, Jalasutra, Yogyakarta, 2006, h. 47-51.
[13] Pius A. Partanto & M. Dahlan Al Barry, Kamus Ilmiah Populer, Arkola, Surabaya, 1994, h. 239.
[14] For further information: Herqutanto Sosronegoro, Beberapa Ideologi dan Implementasinya dalam Kehidupan Kenegaraan, Liberty, Yogyakarta, 1984.
[15] Aminudin, Kekuatan Islam dan Pergulatan Kekuasaan di Indonesia, Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, 1999. 
[16] Kholid O. Santosa, Jejak-Jejak Sang Pejuang Pemberontak, Segaarsy, Bandung, 2006, h. 40-47 (Bab I).
[17] Ibid., h. 46.
[18] Taqiyuddin an-Nabhani, Konsepsi Politik Hizbut Tahrir, HTI Press, Jakarta, 2006, h. 225-226.
[19] Shabir Ahmed-Abid Karim, Akar Nasionalisme Di Dunia Islam, Al-Izzah, Jatim, 1997, h. 27.
[20] Interview with member of Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, Taufik Hidayat, SE.i
[21] Writer is one of the international conference participants.
[22] For further information: Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia, Selamatkan Indonesia Dengan Syariah, HTI Press, Jakarta, 2006.
[23] Kholid O. Santosa, op. cit., h. 26.

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